Traditional Science Altogether
Low-fat diets were popular during the 1980s and 1990s, encouraging people to eat foods low in fat (or without fat altogether) and instead eat foods high in carbohydrates. For instance, these diets told people to eat less fat junk food or sweet snacks, instead, you can choose low-calorie, and high-fiber foods like fruits and vegetables. These will help people feel full longer, and make any diet plan more effective. Also, plan your meals and buy the food you need so that you will not be tempted to turn to fast food when you are hungry.
The general public came to believe, partly due to information from low-fat diet proponents, that carbohydrates were "energy food" and that only fat made people fat. This led to high consumption of low-fat foods rich in refined carbohydrates (notably corn syrup), which led some people to gain more weight.
Some low-fat diets were healthier, focusing on consumption of whole grains, vegetables and lean meats. But even these diets did not recognize the importance of essential fatty acids.
For example, the uncooked diet tends to improve a participant's health. People's weight tends to nomalize due to the lack of fat in the diet. It also gives people a high amount of energy as uncooked food is easily matabolized. The diet makes you hungry because the food is easily digested, which constantly makes room for more. However, most people never put on weight while on this diet due to the low fat content. Besides, people should not mix cooked food with uncooked food while on this diet. The cooked food causes the stomach to produce acid, which does not mix well with the uncooked food and can create indigestion.
Atkins (low-carbohydrate diet)
The Atkins Diet is a very popular diet. Dr. Robert Atkins' concept, somewhat exaggerated by the media, that a person can lose weight while eating significant quantities of fat and protein but strictly reducing carbohydrates, has captured the public's imagination. The success of those who tried the diet varied depending on the degree they adhered to the long term stages of the diet structure. The Atkins diet was originally designed for diabetes patients who wanted to manage their insulin levels more effectively. The diet was also embraced by those seeking a diet that allows eating to satiation.
Atkins discourages refined carbohydrate intake and encourages protein intake, especially in the form of meat. The diet encourages the consumption of fruits and non-starchy vegetables for the provision of fiber and nutrients; it takes a somewhat neutral stand on fat intake.
Many people experience rapid initial weight loss on Atkins, some of which is due to depletion of glycogen stores in the liver. Loss of glycogen is associated with loss of water weight, since the body stores up to four pounds of water for each pound of glycogen.
Low carbohydrate diets have been shown to reduce the fasting levels of triglycerides. Elevated triglycerides are a demonstrated risk factor for heart disease. (Low-fat diets also reduce fasting levels of triglycerides.)
A low-carbohydrate diet may not be suitable as a weight-maintenance diet (long-term). The products of fat metabolism (lipolysis) and protein metabolism (gluconeogenesis) include ketones which can be harmful.
Note: Any successful weight-loss diet will cause some acidosis; symptoms range from mild fatigue to severe joint pain. Acidosis can be controlled by drinking water (in large amounts) and taking antacid supplements (or eating vegetables grown in alkaline soil).
Note: Human metabolism is enormously complicated. Diets whose effectiveness is not based on the simple balance of energy must be evaluated experimentally. The premise that protein is less fattening than carbohydrates is unproven, although the specific dynamic action of protein is 30%, while the corresponding figures for carbohydrate and fat are 6% and 4% respectively. ""One hundred kilocalories of protein produces an extra 30 kcal of heat, while similar amounts of carbohydrate and fat raise the metabolic rate by 6 and 4 kcal, respectively" "Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology" Barbara R. Landau, 1976
Since the advent of controversial diets such as Atkins, various diets that stress the eating habits of "natural humans" have been developed. The Evolution Diet explains "what and how we were designed to eat"; the Paleolithic Diet imitates the way people ate during the Stone Ages. These eating plans include basically natural foods (those not processed by humans). Whereas the Paleolithic Diet exludes milk and grain-foods, The Evolution Diet excludes human-made ingredients such as partially hydrogenated oils but allows some processed foods such as whole-grain crackers and dairy products. Anthropologists who focus their research on human evolution, however, are quick to point out that the diet of Paleolithic peoples was most likely opportunistic. That is, these early humans would most likely eat whatever edible foods were available at any given moment (e.g. vegetables, termites, meat) and not restrict their intake of any food. Until recent human history, starvation has been a far greater threat than over-consumption.
There is a growing body of evidence that vegetarian diets can prevent obesity and lower disease risks. According to the American Dietetic Association, "Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than nonvegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease; vegetarians also show lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer."
Vegetarians on average weigh 10 percent less than non-vegetarians. And in a year-long study comparing Dean Ornish's vegetarian diet to Weight Watchers, The Zone Diet, and The Atkins Diet, subjects on Dean Ornish's diet achieved the most weight loss (on average).
Very Low Calorie Diet
The Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) is a prescribed diet for obese patients. Daily intake consists of three milkshake-like formula drinks (made with powder concentrate and water), which supply about 2000 kilojoules (500 Calories) and all necessary vitamins and minerals.
There are risks to this diet. A patient who drinks more formula than allowed can get too much iron and selenium. Constipation is a problem: extra water and (fiber) laxatives may be required. Immune response may be compromised.
VLCD should only be used for dieting when a patient's body mass index exceeds 30. The diet requires regular consultation between patient and doctor.
VLCD can be very successful when used over a six to twelve week period. As with all starvation diets, metabolism will fall. A sensible diet-and-exercise plan must follow cessation of VLCD, or weight will be gained back.
Diets and slim